Thursday, 4 September 2014


Books for software engineering
Introduction to software engineering:
The evolving role of software, Changing Nature of Software, legacy software, Software myths.
A Generic view of process: Software engineering- A layered technology, a process framework, The Capability Maturity Model Integration (CMMI), Process patterns, process assessment, personal and team process models.

Process models (or) Software Life Cycle: 
Waterfall Model
Incremental process models, 
Evolutionary process models, 
Specialized process models, 
The Unified process.
Explain about spiral model or Spiral model
Software Requirements: Functional and non-functional requirements, User requirements, System requirements, Interface specification, the software requirements document.

Requirements engineering process: Feasibility studies, Requirements elicitation and analysis, Requirements validation, Requirements management.
System models: Context Models, Behavioral models, Data models, Object models, structured methods.

Design Engineering: Design process and Design quality, Design concepts, the design model, pattern based software design.
Creating an architectural design: software architecture, Data design, Architectural styles and patterns, Architectural Design, assessing alternative architectural designs, mapping data flow into software architecture.

Modeling component-level design: Designing class-based components, conducting component-level design, Object constraint language, designing conventional components.
Performing User interface design: Golden rules, User interface analysis and design, interface analysis, interface design steps, Design evaluation.

Testing Strategies: A strategic approach to software testing, test strategies for conventional software, Black-Box and White-Box testing, Validation testing, System testing, the art of Debugging.
Product metrics: Software Quality, Frame work for Product metrics, Metrics for Analysis Model, Metrics for Design Model, Metrics for source code, Metrics for testing, Metrics for maintenance.

Metrics for Process and Products: Software Measurement, Metrics for software quality.Risk management: Reactive vs Proactive Risk strategies, software risks, Risk identification, Risk projection, Risk refinement, RMMM, RMMM Plan.

Quality Management: Quality concepts, Software quality assurance, Software Reviews, Formal technical reviews, Statistical Software quality Assurance, Software reliability, The ISO 9000 quality standards.

Saturday, 9 August 2014


Introduction to software engineering
why do we learn software engineering?
1.0  Software Life Cycle
      Explain about the phases in Water fall model
      Explain about spiral model
1.1  The Software Engineefing Discipline Evolution and Impact
1.2  Evolution of an art to an engineering discipline
1.7  High level language programming
Explain about 'Structured Programming
1.8  Control flow based design
1.10          Data flow oriented design
1.12          Other developments
1.13          Notable changes in software development practices
1.14          Computers systems engineering
1.15          Sotware life cycle models-classical waterfall model classical waterfall model feasisbility study
1.16          Requirement analysis and specifications
1.17          Design
1.18          Coding and unit testing
1.19          Integration and system testing
1.21          Iterative water fall model
1.22          Prototype model
1.23          Evolutinary model
1.24          Spiral model
1.25          Comparision of different life cycle models
Revision control or version control

Friday, 8 August 2014

Software Life Cycle

Software Life Cycle 
                 Software Development Life Cycles(SDLC)

  • Software life cycle (or software process):
-        series of identifiable stages that a software product undergoes during its life time:
*        Feasibility study
*        requirements analysis and specification,
*        design,
*        coding,
*        testing
*        maintenance
Explain about Feasibility study?

Ans: Feasibility Study
  • Main aim of feasibility study:determine whether developing the product
-         financially worthwhile
-         technically feasible.
  • First roughly understand what the customer wants:
-        different data which would be input to the system,
-        processing needed on these data,
-        output data to be produced by the system,
-        various constraints on the behavior of the system.
Activities during Feasibility Study
  • Work out an overall understanding of the problem.
  • Formulate different solution strategies.
  • Examine alternate solution strategies in terms of:
*        resources required,
*        cost of development, and
*        development time.
  • Perform a cost/benefit analysis:
    • to determine which solution is the best.
    • you may determine that none of the solutions is feasible due to:
high cost,
resource constraints,
technical reasons.

Explain about Requirements Analysis and Specification?

  • Aim of this phase:
-         understand the exact requirements of the customer, 
-         document them properly.
  • Consists of two distinct activities:
-         requirements gathering and analysis
-         requirements specification.
Goals of Requirements Analysis
  • Collect all related data from the customer:
-         analyze the collected data to clearly understand what the customer wants,
-         find out any inconsistencies and incompleteness in the requirements,
-         resolve all inconsistencies and incompleteness.
Requirements Gathering
  • Gathering relevant data:
-         usually collected from the end-users through interviews and discussions.
-         For example,  for a business accounting software:
*         interview all the accountants of the organization to find out their requirements.
  • The data you initially collect from the users:
-         would usually contain several contradictions and ambiguities:
-         each user  typically has only a partial and incomplete view of the system.
  • Ambiguities and contradictions:
-         must be identified
-         resolved by discussions with the customers.
  • Next, requirements are organized:
-         into a Software Requirements Specification (SRS) document.
  • Engineers doing requirements analysis and specification:
-         are designated as  analysts.  

Explain about Design?
  • Design  phase transforms  requirements  specification:
-          into a  form suitable for implementation in some programming language.
  • In technical terms:
-         during design phase,  software architecture is derived from the SRS document. 
  • Two design approaches:
-         traditional approach,
-         object oriented approach.
Traditional Design Approach
  • Consists of  two activities:
-         Structured analysis
-         Structured design

Structured Analysis Activity

  • Identify all the functions to be performed.
  • Identify data flow among the functions.
  • Decompose each function  recursively into sub-functions. 
-         Identify data flow among the  sub functions as well.
  • Carried out using Data flow diagrams (DFDs).
  • After structured analysis, carry out structured design:
-         architectural design (or high-level design)
-         detailed design (or low-level design).

Structured Design
  • High-level design: 
-         decompose the system into modules
-         represent invocation relationships among the modules.
  • Detailed design:
-         different modules designed in greater detail:
*         data structures and algorithms for each module are designed.

Object Oriented Design
  • First identify various objects (real world entities)  occurring in the problem:
-         identify the relationships among the objects.
-         For example, the objects in a pay-roll software may be:
*         employees,
*         managers,
*         pay-roll register,
*         Departments, etc.
  • Object structure
-         further refined to obtain the detailed design.
  • OOD has several advantages:
-         lower development effort,
-         lower development time,
-         better maintainability.

Explain about Implementation?
  • Purpose of implementation phase (aka coding and unit testing phase):
-         translate(converting) software design into source code.
  • During the implementation phase:
-         each module of the design is  coded,
-         each module is unit tested
·         tested independently as a stand alone unit, and debugged,
-         each module is documented.
  • The purpose of  unit testing:
-         test if individual modules work correctly. 
  • The end product of implementation  phase:
a set of program modules that have been  tested individually.

Life Cycle Model
Before learning Life Cycle Models first lets we discuss environment in the Software Organisations.
                                            Designation in Software Organisations

  • Whenever we enter into the software organisation as a Trainee(fresher)
  • after some couple of time we will be Software Engineer
  • later Senior Software engineer
  • After gaining Experience we may become as a Tech Lead/Team Lead./Module Leader
  • Next designation is we have choice either we may try for Project Manager or Business Analysists
  • BA(Business Analysists) involves in the Analysis phase

  • A software life cycle model (or  process model):
-        a descriptive and diagrammatic model of software life cycle:
-        identifies all the activities required for product development,
-        establishes a precedence ordering among the different activities,
-        Divides life cycle into phases. 
  • Several different activities may be carried out in each life cycle phase.
-        For example, the design stage might consist of:
*        structured analysis activity followed by 
*        structured design activity.

Why Model  Life Cycle ?


  • A written description:
-        forms a common understanding of activities among the software developers.
-        helps  in identifying inconsistencies, redundancies, and omissions in the development process.
-        Helps in tailoring a process model for specific projects.
  • Processes are tailored for special projects.
-        A documented process model
·         helps to identify where the tailoring is to occur.
  • The development team must identify a suitable life cycle model:
-        and then adhere to it.
-        Primary advantage of adhering to a life cycle model:
·        helps development of software in a systematic and  disciplined manner.
  • When a program is developed by a single programmer ---
-        he has the freedom to decide his exact steps.
  • When a software product is being developed by a team: 
-        there must be a precise understanding among team members as to when to do what,
-        otherwise it would lead to chaos and project  failure.
  • A software project will never succeed if:
-        one engineer starts writing code,
-        another concentrates on writing the test document first,
-        yet another engineer first defines the file structure
-        another defines the I/O for his portion first.
  • A life cycle model:
-        defines  entry and exit criteria for every phase.
-        A phase is considered to be complete:
·        only when all its exit criteria are satisfied.
  • The phase exit criteria for the software requirements specification phase:
-        Software Requirements Specification (SRS) document is complete, reviewed, and approved by the customer.
  • A phase can start:
-        only if its phase-entry criteria have been satisfied.
  • It becomes easier for software project managers:
-        to monitor the progress of the project.
  • When a life cycle model is adhered(undertaken) to,
-        the project manager can at any time fairly accurately tell,
·        at which stage  (e.g., design, code, test, etc. ) of the project is.
-        Otherwise, it becomes very difficult to track the progress of the project 
·        the project manager would have to depend on the guesses of the team members.

  • This usually leads to a problem:
-        known as the  99% complete syndrome.
  • Many life cycle models have been proposed.
  • We will confine our attention to a few important and commonly used models.
-        classical waterfall model
-        iterative waterfall,
-        evolutionary,
-        prototyping, and
-        spiral model